3.1 Project Phases – Project Management from Simple to Complex (2024)

Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the phases of a project.
  2. Describe the types of activities in each phase of a project.

Projects, by definition, have a beginning and an end. They also have defined phases between the project kickoff and project closeout. A phase represents a grouping of similar activities that has a very loosely defined beginning and end. Phases are also typically sequential, where the prior phase is essentially complete before the beginning of the next phase. Phases do not have clear-cut end dates and some activities in an early phase of the project will continue into the later phases. This is in contrast to project beginning and ending dates and milestone dates, which do have clearly defined dates with the expectation that these dates will be met.


The initiation phase of a project represents the activities associated with starting up the project. Activities during the initiation phase include project kickoff meetings, identifying the project team, developing the resources needed to develop the project plan, and identifying and acquiring the project management infrastructure (space, computers). On projects where the scope of work for the project is not well defined, the project team will invest time and resources in developing a clearer scope of work. On projects where the major project stakeholders are not aligned, the project team will expend resources and time creating stakeholder alignment.

The activities that occur within the initiation phase of the project vary on each project. They include all the activities necessary to begin planning the project. The initiation phase typically begins with the assignment of the project manager and ends when the project team has sufficient information to begin developing a detailed schedule and budget. Unlike project milestones, some activities associated with project initiation may be delayed without delaying the end of the project. For example, it is advantageous for the project to have the major project stakeholders aligned from the beginning, but sometimes it is difficult to get the commitment from stakeholders to invest the time and resources to engage in an alignment process. Sometimes it is only after stakeholders begin observing progress on a project that the project manager can facilitate the stakeholder alignment processes.

The knowledge, skills, and experience needed on the project can vary in each phase. During the early phases of a project, the project leadership needs good conceptual skills, the ability to build a team, and the experience to build a project roadmap. During project closeout, the project leadership provides a high degree of motivation and attention to details. On a large project, lasting two or more years, it is common to see the project management team change leadership to provide skills that are appropriate to the final phases of the project.

The Project Management Institute (Project Management Institute, Inc., 2008) identifies four major phases of a project as characteristics of the project life cycle. These four life-cycle phases are initiation, planning, execution, and project closeout. The initiation phase, which PMI labels “starting the project,” includes all the activities necessary to start the project. These activities include holding the project kickoff meeting, confirming or developing conceptual schedules and budgets, and acquiring project execution resources such as office space, computers, and communications equipment.


The planning phase, which PMI labels “organizing and preparing,” includes the development of more detailed schedules and a budget. The planning also includes developing detailed staffing, procurement, and project controls plans. The emphasis of the planning phase is to develop an understanding of how the project will be executed and a plan for acquiring the resources needed to execute it. Although much of the planning activity takes place during the planning phase, the project plan will continue to be adjusted to respond to new challenges and opportunities. Planning activities occur during the entire life of the project.


The execution phase, labeled by PMI as “carrying out the work,” includes the major activities needed to accomplish the work of the project. On a construction project, this would include the design and construction activities. On an information technology (IT) project, this would include the development of the software code. On a training project, this would include the development and delivery of the training.


The closeout phase—or using PMI’s nomenclature, “closing of the project”—represents the final stage of a project. Project staff is transferred off the project, project documents are archived, and the final few items or punch list is completed. The project client takes control of the product of the project, and the project office is closed down.

The amount of resources and the skills needed to implement each phase of the project depends on the project profile. Typically, a project with a higher-complexity profile requires more skills and resources during the initiation phase. Projects with a profile that indicates problems with alignment among key stakeholders or political and legal issues will require specialized resources to develop plans that address these issues early in the project. A project with a lower complexity level will invest more resources in the execution phases to execute the project as effectively and efficiently as possible.

Project Phases on a Large Multinational Project

A United States Construction company won a contract to design and build the first copper mine in northern Argentina. There was no existing infrastructure for either the mining industry or large construction projects in this part of South America. During the initiation phase of the project, the project manager focused on defining and finding a project leadership team with the knowledge, skills, and experience to manage a large complex project in a remote area of the globe. The project team set up three offices. One was in Chile, where large mining construction project infrastructure existed. The other two were in Argentina. One was in Buenos Aries to establish relationships and Argentinean expertise, and the second was in Catamarca—the largest town close to the mine site. With offices in place, the project start-up team began developing procedures for getting work done, acquiring the appropriate permits, and developing relationships with Chilean and Argentine partners.

During the planning phase, the project team developed an integrated project schedule that coordinated the activities of the design, procurement, and construction teams. The project controls team also developed a detailed budget that enabled the project team to track project expenditures against the expected expenses. The project design team built on the conceptual design and developed detailed drawings for use by the procurement team. The procurement team used the drawings to begin ordering equipment and materials for the construction team; to develop labor projections; to refine the construction schedule; and to set up the construction site. Although planning is a never-ending process on a project, the planning phase focused on developing sufficient details to allow various parts of the project team to coordinate their work and to allow the project management team to make priority decisions.

The execution phase represents the work done to meet the requirements of the scope of work and fulfill the charter. During the execution phase, the project team accomplished the work defined in the plan and made adjustments when the project factors changed. Equipment and materials were delivered to the work site, labor was hired and trained, a construction site was built, and all the construction activities, from the arrival of the first dozer to the installation of the final light switch, were accomplished.

The closeout phase included turning over the newly constructed plant to the operations team of the client. A punch list of a few remaining construction items was developed and those items completed. The office in Catamarca was closed, the office in Buenos Aries archived all the project documents, and the Chilean office was already working on the next project. The accounting books were reconciled and closed, final reports written and distributed, and the project manager started on a new project.

Key Takeaways

  • The phases of a project are initiation, planning, execution, and closeout.
  • The initiation phase, which PMI calls “starting the project,” includes activities such as holding alignment and kickoff meetings, identifying the project team, developing the resources needed to develop the project plan, and identifying and acquiring the project management infrastructure.
  • The planning phase, which PMI calls “organizing and preparing,” includes developing detailed staffing, procurement, and project controls plans.
  • The execution phase, which PMI calls “carrying out the work,” includes the major activities needed to accomplish the work of the project.
  • The closeout phase, which PMI calls “closing of the project,” includes transferring staff, archiving documents, closing offices, completing punch list tasks, and turning over the results of the project to the client.


  1. Completing the items on a punch list occurs during the _________ phase.
  2. The ______ phase includes start-up activities and is called “starting the project” by PMI.
  3. The phase in which the project work is mainly accomplished is the _______ phase.
  4. How does the initiation phase differ from the planning phase?
  5. What is a punch list and in which phase is it used?
  6. What are the four phases of a project?

Project Phases

Consider a personal project that you have been involved with in the last few years, such as moving your residence, buying a car, or changing jobs. Describe the activities related to that project that fit into each of the four project phases.


Project Management Institute, Inc., A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 4th ed. (Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute, Inc., 2008), 11–16.

3.1 Project Phases – Project Management from Simple to Complex (2024)


What is Phase 3 of project management? ›

Implementation (Execution) Phase

During the third phase, the implementation phase, the project plan is put into motion and the work of the project is performed. It is important to maintain control and communicate as needed during implementation.

What are the 3 phases of project development cycle? ›

The project management life cycle is usually broken down into four phases: initiation, planning, execution, and closure. These phases make up the path that takes your project from the beginning to the end.

What are the 5 phases of project management? ›

There are typically five project life cycle phases: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closure. Initiation is where you define the goals, scope, budget, and timeline.

What are the phases of project management group of answer choices? ›

This project management process generally includes four phases: initiating, planning, executing, and closing. Some may also include a fifth “monitoring and controlling” phase between the executing and closing stages.

What is Phase 3 implementation? ›

The purpose of Phase 3 (Implementation) is to implement the program plan and the research and evaluation plan as intended.

What are the three phases of the management process? ›

Management Process Three phases of the management process are planning, directing, and controlling. Match the following descriptions to the proper phase by clicking on the phase (on the left) and then clicking on the correct description (on the right).

What are the 3 key steps in project planning project development? ›

The project planning phase typically includes setting project goals, designating project resources, and mapping out the project schedule.

What are the stages of project phase? ›

The project life cycle is broken down into five project management phases: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, closure.

What are the 4 phases of project management? ›

There are 4 project life cycle phases: initiation, planning, execution, and closure. And if you monitor each, you can systematize them and understand where there's room for improvement. Especially if you review them separately, instead of just treating all the phases as one big project.

What are the stages of management? ›

There are four parts to the management process: planning, organizing, leading/ directing, and controlling. In the planning stage, a manager determines how best to accomplish a set goal.

Why are projects done in phases? ›

Project Phases. Phases, or stages, are very important for project managers. By thinking in terms of phases, you can ensure that the deliverables produced at the end of each phase meet their purpose, and that project team members (or sub-teams) are properly prepared for the next phase.

What are the 7 phases of project management? ›

The Project Lifecycle consists of seven phases intake, initiation, planning, product selection, execution, monitoring & control, and closure. These phases make up the path that takes your project from start to finish.

What is the difference between project stage and project phase? ›

So "stage" and "phase" are very similar but "stage" has a slightly stronger implication of planning, and of a beginning and end, whereas "phase" is less clear cut, and may refer to random or cyclic things. "Level" suggests one of a series of stages increasing in difficulty or the like.

What are the 5 phases of system development life cycle? ›

SDLC consists of various phases, such as planning, design, coding, testing, and deployment, while SRLC includes additional phases, such as requirements elicitation, analysis, and validation.

What are the five major project management fundamentals? ›

Five Project Management Fundamentals
  • 1) Conception & Initiation. This is the most crucial project management fundamental. ...
  • 2) Definition & Planning. The next step is defining and planning. ...
  • 3) Launch & Execution. ...
  • 4) Performance & Control. ...
  • 5) Project Closing. ...
  • Realistic Planning of Projects. ...
  • Quality Control. ...
  • Cost Reduction.

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